The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rage across the world in full force, months after it first reared its head. While there is no cure for the Novel Coronavirus infection yet, vaccines are in development around the world, which are intended to stem its spread further. What are some of the vaccines currently in development globally to counter the COVID-19 infection risk? We find out below.
How is Vaccine Testing Carried Out?
Before we begin discussing the various COVID-19 vaccines in development contemporarily across nations, let’s understand what each stage of a vaccine trial indicates –
- Phase 1 – Phase 1 Safety Trials is the stage that follows pre-clinical testing on animals in the vaccine trial process. In this stage, the vaccine is provided to a limited number of people to test its dosage, safety and immune response.
- Phase 2 – Phase 2 of a vaccine trial denotes extensive testing. In other words, the vaccine is now tested across population groups to test its safety and how it affects the immune system.
- Phase 3 – Phase 3 or Efficacy trials is when thousands of individuals are administered the vaccine. Usually, this stage is useful in reporting rare side effects which may have gone unnoticed in the previous stages.
After a vaccine has undergone these three phases, it can be approved for usage. Sometimes early or limited approval can be obtained in emergency situations.
China and Russia have approved COVID-19 vaccines that they have developed without letting these vaccines enter Phase 3 of the trial procedure. Health experts have warned that this hasty approval can lead to severe risks for individuals who find themselves administered with these vaccines.
Vaccines in Phase 3 of Development
Currently, 8 vaccines are in Phase 3 of development. They are –
· Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, being tested by Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia
· CoronaVac, being tested by Chinese company Sinovac Biotech
· The vaccine developed by Beijing Institute of Biological Products being tested by Sinopharm
· A second vaccine also developed by Beijing Institute of Biological Products, again tested by Sinopharm
· The vaccine being tested by the University of Oxford in association with AstraZeneca
· Ad5 vaccine developed by Chinese company CanSino Biologics, being tested by Academy of Military Medical Sciences
· Mrna vaccine, being developed in mutual collaboration between German company BioNTech, Chinese pharma company Fosun Pharma and New York based company Pfizer.
· Moderna being developed in the US, tested by the National Institute of Health
The Chinese military approved use of the Ad5 vaccine in June for a year as a “specially needed drug”. CanSino Biologics, the company that developed the vaccine, is currently holding its Phase 3 trails in Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
The Sputnik V vaccine, developed by the Russian Ministry of Health, was earlier approved for use by Russian President Vladimir Putin. After vaccine experts criticized this hasty approval, Russian authorities have clarified that Phase 3 of its trial is currently ongoing, and the vaccine has only received a conditional registration certificate as of now.
Phoenix Family Medical Clinic Salutes These Frontline Warriors
We hope that an effective vaccine is adequately tested and approved for use soon. Until then, if you feel like the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting your mental or physical health detrimentally, feel free to schedule a telemedicine appointment with us. Our medical experts are readily available to cater to your health issues and help you feel better!